”A father lineage” I. Y-chromosoms DNA haplogroup N, M231 on unusual phenomena in genetics of Europeans. It is there as common only in Finland, in Baltics and northern parts of Russia, where it naturally is explained as heritage fo vanished is remaining Finno-Uralic peoples. Genetics have even located N-lines origins even to far east, regardless it is problematic. Let us see….
In European peoples genetic inheritance there are 3 different signicant waves.
- Paleolithic Europeans heritage of those who lived in continent during ice age.
- Farming cultural wave arriving from Middle-East.
- Inheritage brought by Indo-European nomadic peoples after 3500 BC from steppe regions of Central-Asia.
N-haplogroup does not fit into any of aforomentioned, and is limited into certain region from where we can make up a conclusion that it has arrived from somewhere else to already inhabitated Europe. When all aforomentioned three other components are each connected with some mega-event, there should be found some phenomena visible also elsewhere than in genetic material, what could combine it to arrival of such genetics where also N father lineage belongs. Such thing is hard to find.
N-lineage existance (as in map of headline of this article) is connected to northern regions. This referes to old presence of it in Eurasia: later people movements have covered it in southern areas. There is also #slavic-wedge in between Finland and Urals. That is phenomena connected with language history, consequence of slavic migrations towards north, starting 1400 years ago. Current population in region is from southern direction, and they lack haplogroup connected with older population.
In area of selkup-samoyeds east or Urals, N-lineages become more rare. Due of selkups are considered #paleosiberians as their genomes it means that N-lineages have been missing from the population of ice age. Yakuts who are speakers of turkic language N is there, even very strongly. Other turkic peoples it is not there.
Represantation of different YDNA haplogroups in contemporary population of Finland (N3 is older terminology, genetic scientists have since then replaced their name codes.):
Maps is showing different YDNA ”father lines” representation in male population in Finland. N-lines are common in whole country, but unexpectionally common in eastern parts of Finland. Most likely reason to that is #bottleneck-phenomena. It means that majority of population have vanished from area one or several times, and few survivors of it have re-populated the same area. In such situation rare genetic components become more rare, or may vanish totally.
Preservation of I1a1 and other common lineages in eastern parts of Finland may be even due of supplemental population from western parts of country. In historical era official reports are telling even to whole districts having remained mayby just 10 dwelled houses after demolition campaigns done by the Russians. Slash-and-burn livelihood in Savo region, meaning rapid population spread in eastern and northern parts of Finland what may have created homogenity in genomes of people, but it is not the only reason to it.
According to inhabitation reports, for example some districts inhabitation may have happened by in extreme cases by 1-2 family in a beginning. Books in library of museum department sometimes even tell the surnames. In these circumstances exceptionally dominant share of widest haplogroup is nothing of suprising. Old chant of ”two peoples in Finland”; this examination in map does not support; it prevents this possibility.
N-M231 family tree what genetic scientists have composed, there has been off-branching in this order:
- Separation of N-line from NO: 21 900 BP.
- N-lines of Balkan region were being separated from the main branch: 18 700 BP.
- Some other subgroups were being separated: 18 200 – 7 500 BC.
- N-lines of Yakutian peoples get separated around 6 400 BC.
- Ugrian peoples N-lines were being separated 4 400 BC.
- N-lines of Baltic peoples were being separated 3 700 BC.
- N-lines (of main branch) were separated 3 700 BC. N.
Earliest group of Balkan haplo forces to locate NO=>N, O -splitting to west from in pre-assumed usually east Asian ”orginal home” what is in older publications still. In map family tree above N-group as located to map of Eurasian:
These timing estimations are by genetics, not by us. Map is attempting to take notice paleobotanic and climatic details. Balkans group separating (in map 20 000 BC.) would locate this event in following environment:
Era described by this map, 16 000 c14 BC, migration what seems as Balkan N-lines may have started from assumed place, ”south Urals migration knot”, to westwards to Europe. It has to be also placed under consideretion, have N and O – lines being separated earlier in same region, whilst O-lineage went to eastward and ending up later on during times of more favourable climate – over the area what today is extremely dry – into east Asian coast, where it met Chinas #austronesian – language population as one of YDNA haplogroup.
We are monitoring there regions 20 000 BC.
Because N-line is also found in early neolithic cultures of Liao-river valley in northern China, migration of either direction is combining these regions into northern Russia and Siberia, Baltics, and Finland where such N-lines are being found.
One possible travel-phase of YDNA haplogroups is cultural stream between China and Eastern-Europe in a beginning of neolithical era. Comb ceramics which is usually being associated into Finno-Uralic peoples was present in large zone from Fennoscandia to Korea and Japan.
Cultural wave to which spread ceramics is impulse strong enough to spread also haplogroups of YDNA, as is also agriculture:
Earliest plant in agriculture in Finland was a buckwheat starting from 5500 BC, had been domesticated in borderlands of China and Tibet, from which area also neolithic Ukrainian style ceramics have been found. Contemporary Central-Asia’s steppe region (marked as green on the map) research of neolithical agriculture is still badly lacking, so we have not much wholistic view of movements of cultural influences in that region.
Usage of metals – initially copper – when starting in end of stone age was also societial mega-event. In Garino Bor in Ural region obviously our linquistic relatives created already 2500 BC. a culture manufacturing copper wares, what probably was most northest metallurgical center during its time. In East-Karelia, around the lake of Ääninen, already during comb-ceramical culture 6000 BC. there was been utilized metallic copper found from the nature. Copper culture of Ääninen had a strong impact in area of Finland, and probably it gave a initial push for utilization for sandstone containing copper in Garino Bor.
Metal technology and trade with objects of it may have aided YDNAs newest lineages from more advanced regions to periphery. In Russian map earliest metal processing estimated dates:
1. 7000-5000 BC., 2. 5000-3500 BC., 3. 3500-2500 BC., 4. 2500-1700 BC., 5. 1000-800 BC., 6.
Copper-complex in Ääninen lake and other most oldest metallurgical sites have been marked with red colour in this picture. They could be around 1500-700 years ahead their enviroment in technology. Here below is a metallic axe found from Finno-Uralic Ananjino braze cultures remains.
A region between Finland and China or Korea has not been in ancient times anything of periphery untouched by cultural evolution, but instead lot of interesting things happened over that area. How it is connected with Finns, and how all of that has impacted to evolution into contemporary finnishness, it is difficult to estimate.
The region of Finland has received first of its population during retrieving ice age from Central-Europe, from the paleolithic culture of Swidry via Kunda and Veretje cultures. After that there has come new waves of population in repeating sequences from central Volga region, what was been originally been populated from peoples originating from the same Swidry culture. Agriculturalism, ceramics, and mayby knowledge of metal usage arrived from this area of ”innovation centre of central Volga”, from south.
Those who gave such influences were neolithical cultures within Black Sea, Caucasus and southern Urals. And it can not be closed out that impact of them to language what we are speaking has been greater what is believed. We have here been estimating the possibility that Finnish mens most common father lineage, YDNA haplogroup N, would have arrived along with those same cultural influences. During writing this there is no clarity for scientific community where the N-lines have emerged via mutation from NO. So N-mens voyages in darkness of ancient history are still without final clarity.